By Karen Abeyasekere, 100th Air Refueling Wing Public Affairs
/ Published May 10, 2011
ROYAL AIR FORCE LAKENHEATH, England -- Eva Clark was born during the Holocaust to Jewish parents who were kept as prisoners-of-war in Terezin (called 'Theresienstadt' by the Germans), in the former Czech Republic. Eva visited RAF Mildenhall in 2008, during Holocaust Remembrance Week, to share her mother's experiences throughout that time. Three years later, she visited RAF Lakenheath to share those experiences with others. This is her story ...
Born in Mauthausen concentration camp, Upper Austria, on April 29, 1945, Eva Clarke made her way into the world on the back of a coal truck, three days before the U.S. Army liberated the camp.
Less than three weeks previously, her heavily-pregnant mother, along with other concentration camp prisoners, had been put on the coal truck (one of many carriages on a train) by German soldiers. They were being transferred from a slave labor camp in Frieberg, near Dresden, to Mauthausen, and during their nightmare trip were given no food and little water.
Not all survived the journey; those who didn't, had their bodies thrown off the coal truck along the way.
Eva, daughter of a Czech mother and German father, both of whom were Jewish, spoke at the Holocaust Remembrance luncheon at the Eagle's Landing, RAF Lakenheath, May 6. She shared her parents' experiences of being kept prisoner for three years in the German concentration camps, adding her parents weren't the only family members who suffered at the hands of the Nazi soldiers.
"During World War I, my (paternal) grandfather was in the German Army, and received the Iron Cross 1st Class (the Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle). In World War II, however, because he was Jewish, he was put into a concentration camp at Terezin," she said.
"My parents spent three years at Terezin, until the end of September 1944, when my father was sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The next day, my mother volunteered to go to be with him, but she never saw him again. She later found out that he'd been shot dead Jan. 18, 1945 - just one week before the Russian army liberated the concentration camp there."
How it all began
Eva's parents married in 1940. Her father, Bernd Nathan, was an architect and interior designer, and had a small workshop in Prague before the beginning of the war. Her mother, Anka, was a law student at university, but when all the Czech universities were forced to close, she became an apprentice to a milliner, making hats. When they were sent to their first concentration camp at the end of 1941, Eva's mother was 24; her father was 34.
A short time before her parents became prisoners of war, the Germans made it illegal for Jews to do many things, one of which was as minor as going to the cinema.
"When someone forbids you to do something, it makes you more determined to do it anyway, and that's what my mother did - she went to watch a film," Eva said. "But it so happened that was the day the Gestapo came into the cinema, and immediately stopped it."
Eva explained that the Gestapo soldiers started going through every row of seats, inspecting everyone's papers.
"My mother was terrified what they would do to her if they saw her papers, which were marked with a big 'J' for 'Jew,'" she said. But miraculously, for some reason they stopped right at the row in front of where her mother was seated, and left the cinema without ever looking at her papers.
"To this day, I keep asking her, 'What was the name of the film you went to see that day?" Eva said, to a ripple of laughter from the crowd of people who had come to hear her speak at RAF Lakenheath. "But she still doesn't remember - the experience terrified her so much, she blocked it out of her mind."
"When we first came to live here when I was very young, for a long while my mother went to the cinema every day - just because she could."
The road to hell
As she grew up, Eva learned more of her mother's amazing story of what she'd endured just because she was Jewish.
"I asked my mother how she was taken prisoner, because I imagined that in the middle of the night, German soldiers with guns came banging on the door, dragging people from their beds. But she said it was nothing like that. She told me they had received a card in the post saying that on a certain day, at a certain time, they had to report to a warehouse in Prague, near one of the mainline railway stations.
"When the Jews were sent to Terezin, they were also told to take a small suitcase, and advised to take warm clothing, and pots and pans. When my mother went to report to the Germans, not only was she carrying her handbag and a suitcase, she was also carrying a large cardboard box, held together by a piece of string," recounted Eva. "When I asked her what on earth she had in the box, she said she was carrying two to three dozen doughnuts, 'Because your father liked doughnuts.' For her, it was a very natural thing to do, as she had no idea where their next meal was coming from."
Eva said her mother had to spend three days and three nights in the warehouse; she and the others had to sleep on the floor, weren't given much food or water, and at the end of the three days they were marched to the railway station by the German soldiers.
"There was one young German soldier who knew he had a bit of power, and he wielded it. He didn't harm them physically; he was just a bit sarcastic. My mother was having great difficulty carrying her luggage and the box of doughnuts - the moisture from the doughnuts was making the cardboard soft, and the whole box was coming adrift.
"The soldier said (in German), 'I couldn't give a (expletive deleted) if that box goes with you - or not ...' He implied that it wasn't going to do much good where she was going. He wouldn't have had any idea whatsoever what was going to happen to her, but it wasn't going to be good. He was just twisting the knife, metaphorically," said Eva.
Life in a concentration camp
When the families arrived in Terezin, they were immediately split up. Men went to one part, women to another, and children to another. They were able to meet up sometimes during the day, but largely they led separate lives.
"My mother was fortunate enough to be given a job. It didn't pay, but it did make her life a bit easier. Her job was working with the man who had the responsibility of (distributing) the food," she said.
That meant her mother had access to food.
"When I say 'access' to food, she would actually steal it - a potato, a carrot; anything to make a more substantial soup to feed the 15 members of her closest family. That was her main worry - how on earth was she going to find food for all those people, amongst whom were her parents."
A dangerous secret
Eva said it was during 1943 that her mother discovered she was pregnant.
"When I was about 10 or 12, I asked her how come she'd (gotten) pregnant, and she replied in a very clever way. She said, 'In the circumstances, you found comfort where you could, and to hell with the consequences.'"
But because the Germans were trying to annihilate every single member of the Jewish race, to become pregnant in a concentration camp was considered a crime punishable by death.
"When the Germans discovered my mother was pregnant, they made my parents sign a document agreeing that when the baby was born, he or she would have to be handed over to be euthanized - but what they really meant, was murdered," she said.
Eva's brother, George (his name in English) was born in February 1944. He wasn't taken away from her parents, but died of pneumonia just two months later.
"But his death meant my life," said Eva. "Had my mother arrived at Auschwitz holding my brother in her arms, she would have been sent straight to the gas chamber. Because she'd arrived and wasn't holding a baby (although she was pregnant again with me, but hadn't told anybody else) she lived to see another day."
Retelling her mother's personal tale, Eva explained to those at the ceremony that when her mother arrived at Auschwitz, she was so bewildered and frightened that she just couldn't begin to imagine what horrors the place held.
"She said to some of the women there, 'What goes on here? What happens here? When will I see my parents again?' But the women just laughed at her in a hysterical fashion, as though they'd lost their minds. But they hadn't. They just couldn't understand that anybody arriving in Auschwitz didn't know what went on there.
"They said, 'Well, we'll all go up in smoke, and you'll never see your parents again.' She just couldn't believe what they were saying."
Getting the message out
The rest of Eva's family, apart from her parents and grandfather, were all sent to Auschwitz long before her parents. When they got there, they were able to keep their clothes and luggage, they weren't shaven or tattooed, and they were sent to what was called a 'family camp,' which were one or two huts where families could be together, so they could be forced to write postcards home.
"My aunt wrote a postcard to her cousin, who still lived in Prague at the time. It translated as follows:
'My dear ones, I am here with my husband, my sister and my nephew. All are well and in good health. My husband received a parcel yesterday from our housekeeper, and I would ask you to confirm this to her. I hope you are well and happy. Your parents were very well at the time of our departure. Write soon. Peter (Eva's cousin, who was 8 at the time) looks well and looks forward to receiving news from you. Greetings and kisses, yours ...'
"At first glance, this looks like it says, 'All is well, having a wonderful time, wish you were here.' But my aunt was desperate to get a message out in code. She got the message out, it was understood, and it was acted upon.
"On the top left of the postcard was her full name. Underneath that was her birthday, March 21, 1904 - but in the first line of the address was the Hebrew word for 'bread.'"
Eva's aunt was sending the message that they were starving. Her cousin understood and sent a parcel.
But even before the postcard was sent from Auschwitz to Prague, they were all dead.
The Allies are coming!
Her mother was sent out of Auschwitz to a slave labor camp near Dresden, Germany. She was put to work on the VI unmanned flying bomb (also known as the Doddlebug), riveting on the tail fin.
"My mother spent the next six months there, becoming more obviously pregnant, which became very dangerous for her," said Eva. "My (future) father-in-law was from South Wales, and was a navigator in the British Royal Air Force at the time, on bomber command taking part in the raids."
The raids started when her mother was in the slave labor camp. She said the Germans locked all the prisoners away during the raids, but the prisoners were pleased because they knew it was the Allies coming for them - even though they knew the next bomb could fall on them.
"When my father-in-law first met my mother after the war, when my husband and I first became engaged, he was absolutely devastated that he could have killed my mother," Eva said.
At the end of March and the beginning of April 1944, the Germans started evacuating the camps. According to Eva, they wanted to leave as few living witnesses as possible as to what actually happened inside those camps. That's when the notorious death marches took place.
"My mother was on a coal truck for three solid weeks. It only stopped to throw off the dead bodies. One time when it stopped, my mother happened to be standing by the door, when a farmer walked up to the truck," she said. "My mother was a scarcely-living, pregnant skeleton - she weighed about five stone (70 pounds).
"The farmer brought her a glass of milk, but a Nazi officer standing next to her raised his whip, ready to beat her if she accepted it. But for some reason, he changed his mind, lowered his whip and let her drink the milk. To this day, she maintains that's what saved her life."
As the coal truck arrived in Mauthausen, Eva's mother saw the town's sign and became very frightened, because this time she realized what was going to happen to her there. It was at that moment when she started giving birth to Eva.
Somehow, they both survived the experience, and lived to share that tale today.
Unimaginable horrors end in freedom
Eva explained there were two reasons for that. Firstly, on April 28, 1945, the Germans blew up the gas chamber at Mauthausen - the day before she was born. The second reason was that three days after her birth, the U.S. Army liberated the camp.
Later, newborn baby Eva went with her mother back to Prague, to live at her aunt's house.
"My mother asked if we could stay for three weeks; we stayed for three years," Eva said.
In 1948, Eva's mother was ready to consider marriage once more, as she knew for a fact that her husband had been shot dead in Auschwitz. Her stepfather, who was also Czech and Jewish, had previously escaped from his home country to England, joined the RAF and later met her mother. The family then moved to South Wales, where they settled, and Eva later met her husband.
Eva's perspective of her mother's life during the war tells of the strength and courage Anka possessed, which helped get her through those terrible atrocities.
And babies make three
When she had almost finished her story, Eva shared something else, which hadn't yet happened when she spoke at RAF Mildenhall in 2008.
"We always thought that I was the only baby born on that truck (on the train). But just over a year ago, I found out that four other women had also been pregnant at the same time as my mother.
"They all had to sign the papers to say their babies would be taken from them as soon as they were born, to be euthanized. But two of those other babies escaped that horror and survived -- they were also born on the same train I was, just a few days earlier ... "
Those babies were Hannah Berger-Moran, born April 12, 1945, and Mark Olsky, born April 20, 1945.
Against all the odds, Eva managed to track them down, and the three "babies of the Holocaust" met in Mauthausen in May 2010, at a Holocaust remembrance event. Together, they also met the surviving members of the 11th Armoured Division - the U.S. Army unit which had liberated the concentration camp in 1945, saving the lives of Eva, Anka, Hannah, Mark, and countless others.
A happy ending
As she spoke of meeting the other two "Holocaust babies," Eva became very emotional. She said she felt a special bond with the U.S. forces, because if it were not for them, she and her mother wouldn't be here today.
"The 11th Armoured Division veterans were there to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the end of the war. The three of us were getting ready to celebrate our 65th birthdays - we spent almost the whole weekend in tears," she said, her obvious emotion filling the room, and bringing many a tearful eye to most of the audience.
Eva and her husband now live in Cambridge, and because of ill health in recent years, her mother also lives with them. Hannah and Mark both live in the United States - Hannah lives in California, and Mark lives in Wisconsin.
Many people at the luncheon were clearly emotionally affected by Eva's story, one of whom was Col. Bill Lewis, 48th Fighter Wing vice commander.
"Mrs. Clarke is an amazing woman with a truly inspiring story of survival and the power of the human spirit," he said. "We owe it to her and all Holocaust survivors, and those who lost loved ones, to pay tribute to their sacrifices by being vigilant, and always speaking out against intolerance and injustice."